Nowadays, the management of emission factories is very strict, ignoring the pollution emission of small individuals, especially the seafood industry and aquaculture. Coastal aquaculture is a traditional practice in Asia. The accelerated development in the last twenty years has created negative environmental impacts, such as discharge of wastewater with high levels of organic matter into oceans. It has become an urgent matter to use new management measures and regulations for decreasing deteriorating coastal water quality and the negative environmental impacts of aquaculture development.
In the coastal city of Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China, there are a large amount of untreated wastewater due to shrimp farming which is directly discharged into the ocean. This turned the colour of golden beach into black. According to statistics, shrimp farming area is larger than 4,800,000 m2. There are about hundreds of drainage pipes and wastewater outlets along the 20 kilometre coastline in the city of Zhanjiang. The sewage mainly contains chemical components such as feed, fecal hormone, etc. If it is discharged directly without treatment, it will lead to biological death and break the ecological balance. The image below shows the sea water dyed black from sewage containment. However, a bigger problem is that the farmers have not accepted the inspection and supervision of relevant departments.
From a regulatory point of view, the following problems are encountered:
- Farmers do not set up wastewater treatment devices. In addition to lack of environmental awareness, there are equipment costs simply they can not afford
- The environmental protection department has not set a mandatory standard for sewage discharge
- There are no regulatory agencies and punishment agencies, and there are no penalty standards
- The functions of relevant units or departments are not clear, and they have not taken the responsibility of supervision
Potential solutions to the listed problems
Small and unregulated farmers are merged and closed. Small farmers are small in scale, limited in capital and low in management ability, and are prone to many problems. Merge small-scale farmers or large-scale farmers to purchase unqualified farmers. This is not only convenient for government management, but also farmers have the ability to buy sewage treatment equipment.
•Promote the concept of green sustainable development
•Transformation and upgrading of aquaculture industry
•constructing large-scale industrial recirculating aquaculture bases for grouper
•The industrialized, intensive and ecological recycling aquaculture mode can also be extended to other places.
Problem 2 and 3
The environmental protection department should specify the standard of wastewater. For example: The environment protection policy has been presented by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) to provide a consistent approach to the protection of water quality across all South Australian waters. The Water Quality Policy covers:
• water quality objectives (environmental values & water quality criteria)
• management and control of point and diffuse sources of pollution
• obligations relating to particular activities
• water quality criteria, discharge limits and listed pollutants.
With the target and scope set, a detailed sewage discharge management plan can be made. The proposed wastewater management strategies are, as follows:
- Avoid and minimise the production of waste
- Recycle and reuse wastewater
- Treat wastewater in order to reduce the potential degrading impacts
- Dispose wastewater in an environmentally sound manner
The implementation occurs after the policy is formulated. All farmers shall apply for permits of new aquaculture licences from the Environmental Protection Department (EPD). This license can not be modified and lent without permission. The EPD shall send professionals to the aquaculture site to check whether the license meets the standards and conduct on a regular basis. It is necessary to make relevant laws and regulations to ensure that everyone abides by the strategies. Every individual, business, industry (including aquaculture) and all government authorities will have certain obligations under the strategies. In case an individual fails to comply with these requirements, they will be fined on the spot or prosecuted according to the seriousness of the crime.
In case the regulations of a department are not made clear, there will be no one to take responsibility, and the outcome will be inefficient. In view of this situation, they should first establish a department assessment system. Supervise each other among employees, and directly track down the person in charge in case of any problem. Furthermore, a special inspection agency shall be made with strict assessment and clear rewards and penalties set out.
The objective of the wastewater management strategies is to achieve the sustainable management of the waters of the city by protecting and enhancing water quality while allowing for economic and social development. It reach the SDG11. upgrading of aquaculture industry includes the SDG9. If the policy can be implemented successfully, it will be realized SDG 14 to save the life below water. Environmental protection department establish a new assessment system, which achieve the SDG16 to have a peace, justice and strong institutions.
1. Chua Thia Eng, Number 1989, ‘The Environmental Impact of Aquaculture and the Effects of Pollution on Coastal Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia ’. Available form:
2. EPA, 2003, ‘Aquaculture management and the Environment Protection (Water Quality)Policy ’. Available form: https://www.epa.sa.gov.au/files/477399_aquaculture_mgmt.pdf
3. Southcn, 2020, ‘Golden Coast turns black beach, VR watch Zhanjiang Wuchuan waste water discharged into the sea’. Available form:
4. Department of primary industries, 2020, ‘Lobster management’. Available form: